In the fascinating world of cellular biology, the growth and replication of cells are fundamental processes that sustain life. Two key aspects of these processes are cell elongation and cell division, each playing a distinct role in the life cycle of a cell. While they are both crucial for growth and development, they operate through different mechanisms and serve different purposes within the organism. To understand the nuances of cellular functions, let’s delve into the primary differences between cell elongation and cell division.
Cell elongation refers to the process by which cells increase in length. This process is crucial in plant growth, where cells in stems, roots, and leaves undergo elongation contributing to the overall size and shape of the plant. Elongation is typically driven by internal factors such as hormonal signals, particularly auxins, which promote cell growth. Water uptake due to osmotic pressure is also a significant factor, as it increases the cell’s volume leading to the stretching of the cell wall.
In the context of animal cells, elongation can refer to muscle cells or neurons extending their length during development or regeneration. For instance, during muscle repair, myocytes elongate to span the damaged area whereas in the nervous system, axons can elongate to form connections with other neurons.
1. In Plants
Plant cell elongation is a key process in growth, particularly in the development of shoots and roots. The primary mechanism that allows plant cells to elongate is turgor-driven expansion. This process involves:
1. Cell Wall Loosening
- Plant cells are encased in a rigid cell wall composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, and proteins. For elongation, this wall must be loosened. This is accomplished by the action of expansins and other wall-loosening enzymes that disrupt the hydrogen bonds between cellulose microfibrils and the matrix polysaccharides, allowing the wall to stretch.
2. Turgor Pressure
- The primary driving force for cell elongation is turgor pressure which is the pressure of the cell contents against the cell wall. This pressure is a result of water entering the cell via osmosis which occurs because the cell maintains a higher solute concentration than the surrounding environment.
3. Water Uptake
- For turgor pressure to be effective in elongating the cell, the cell must take in water. Aquaporins are protein channels in the cell membrane that regulate the flow of water into and out of the cell, thus playing a key role in maintaining turgor pressure.
4. Proton Pumps
- The plasma membrane H+-ATPase (proton pump) actively transports protons (H+) out of the cell. This acidifies the cell wall and activates enzymes involved in wall loosening. It also creates an electrochemical gradient that facilitates the uptake of water and solutes.
- The plant hormone auxin is a key regulator of cell elongation. It stimulates the activity of proton pumps, increasing the cell wall’s acidity and activating expansins. Auxin is also involved in gene regulation, promoting the expression of genes that encode proteins necessary for cell elongation.
6. Cytoskeletal Reorganization
- Microtubules in the plant cell are reoriented during elongation, which affects the direction in which the cellulose microfibrils are laid down by cellulose synthase enzymes. This reorientation determines the axis of elongation.
7. Cell Growth Coordination
- Plant cell elongation is not an isolated event; it is often coordinated with the division and expansion of neighboring cells. This coordination ensures that tissues and organs develop with the correct shape and size.
8. Endocytosis and Exocytosis
- To facilitate the incorporation of new cell wall materials and membrane components, cells actively transport vesicles filled with these materials to the expanding cell wall through exocytosis. Simultaneously, endocytosis helps to remodel the plasma membrane and remove old or excess wall materials.
9. Environmental and Internal Cues
- External factors such as light, gravity, temperature, and water availability can influence cell elongation. Internally, a plant’s circadian rhythm and genetic programming also play roles in regulating the elongation process.
The integration of these processes results in the elongation of plant cells, which, when multiplied across many cells, leads to the growth of plant organs and overall plant size. This growth is highly regulated and adapted to the plant’s environmental conditions, ensuring survival and reproductive success. Understanding plant cell elongation has practical implications for agriculture, horticulture, and understanding ecosystems.
2. In Animals
The process of cell elongation in animals is controlled by a combination of genetic, biochemical, and physical factors. Although the exact mechanisms can vary depending on the cell type and the organism, the following are key steps and processes involved in cell elongation:
1. Genetic Regulation
- Specific genes dictate the growth and structure of cells. Transcription factors and other gene-regulatory proteins activate these genes to produce the proteins necessary for cell elongation.
2. Protein Synthesis
- The elongation process requires the synthesis of new proteins to support cell growth. These proteins include structural components like actin and tubulin, which form the cytoskeleton, as well as enzymes and motor proteins that facilitate movement and restructuring of cell components.
3. Cytoskeletal Remodeling
- The cytoskeleton is a dynamic network of fibers that maintain cell shape, secure organelles in specific positions, and enable changes in cell structure. During elongation, microtubules and actin filaments rearrange. Microtubules often elongate from the centrosome near the nucleus towards the cell periphery, pushing the membrane outwards, while actin filaments provide structural integrity and facilitate connections to the extracellular matrix.
4. Cell Membrane Expansion
- As the cell elongates, its membrane must also expand. This is facilitated by the addition of new phospholipids and proteins into the cell membrane, a process often driven by exocytosis where vesicles containing these components fuse with the plasma membrane.
5. Intracellular Transport
- The movement of organelles and vesicles within elongating cells is essential for delivering the necessary materials to areas of growth. This is often mediated by motor proteins that walk along cytoskeletal tracks carrying cargo to specific locations within the cell.
6. Signal Transduction
- External signals such as hormones, growth factors, or mechanical stress can stimulate cell elongation. These signals are transmitted inside the cell through signal transduction pathways which often involve a series of phosphorylation events catalyzed by kinases.
7. Cell-Cell and Cell-Matrix Interactions
- Cells often interact with their neighbors and with the extracellular matrix through specialized structures like adherens junctions and integrins. These interactions can influence the direction and extent of cell elongation. For example, in the elongation of muscle fibers, myocytes must adhere to each other and align properly to form functional muscle tissue.
- Mechanical cues are translated into biochemical signals through a process known as mechanotransduction. This is particularly relevant in tissues that are mechanically active or that experience regular stretching and compression such as muscle, skin, and blood vessels.
9. Cell Polarity
- Many elongating cells establish a polarity, with a defined “head” and “tail,” which is critical for directional growth. For example, the growth cone at the tip of an elongating neuron is highly polarized, with a leading edge that extends forward in response to guidance cues.
10. Environmental Responses
- Particularly in the case of plant cells but also relevant for certain animal cells, environmental factors like light, gravity, and chemical gradients can affect the direction and rate of elongation.
This intricate coordination ensures that cells not only elongate but do so in a way that is consistent with the functional requirements of the tissue or organ of which they are a part. Disruptions to this process can result in developmental abnormalities or diseases, so, understanding cell elongation is also vital for medical science and its applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
3. Cytoskeleton Involvement in Animal Cell Elongation
In animal cells, the cytoskeleton is an essential component in the process of cell elongation due to its role in maintaining cell shape, providing mechanical resistance to deformation, and facilitating changes in cell structure. The cytoskeleton is composed of three main types of protein filaments:
- These are long, hollow cylinders made up of tubulin subunits. They are dynamic structures, rapidly growing and shrinking, which is crucial for their role in cell elongation. Microtubules provide tracks for the transport of vesicles and organelles to the sites of cell elongation. They also determine the axis of elongation by orienting themselves along the direction of growth. In neurons, for example, microtubules are vital for the elongation of axons and dendrites.
2. Actin Filaments (Microfilaments)
- Actin filaments are thin fibers composed of actin protein subunits. They are especially concentrated just beneath the plasma membrane and are integral to the cell cortex. Actin polymerization pushes the plasma membrane forward in lamellipodia and filopodia during cell movement and shape changes. This actin-based structure is essential for the elongation of muscle cells where the addition of sarcomeres in series facilitates cell stretching and contraction.
3. Intermediate Filaments
- These filaments provide tensile strength to cells allowing them to withstand mechanical stress without being stretched out of shape. They are more stable than microtubules and actin filaments and form a network throughout the cell that helps maintain its structural integrity during elongation.
4. Functions performed by Cytoskeleton
During cell elongation, these components of the cytoskeleton perform several functions:
1. Structural Support
- They maintain the cell’s integrity and shape during the elongation process ensuring that mechanical stresses do not cause the cell to rupture or deform incorrectly.
2. Intracellular Transport
- The cytoskeleton is responsible for the intracellular movement of organelles, vesicles, and proteins to the sites where cell elongation occurs. Motor proteins such as kinesins and dyneins move along microtubules, while myosin moves along actin filaments, each transporting cellular cargo.
3. Cell Signaling
- The cytoskeleton is involved in signal transduction related to cell elongation. It can respond to external signals by reorganizing its structure, which can then initiate or inhibit elongation.
4. Cell Division
- During mitosis, microtubules form the mitotic spindle, which is essential for segregating chromosomes into the daughter cells. Although not a part of elongation per se, cell division is closely linked to cell growth and elongation, especially in tissues where rapid turnover is required.
5. Cell Motility
- In processes such as wound healing, where cells need to cover a wound site, or during development when cells migrate to their correct locations, elongation and motility are closely tied. Actin and microtubules drive the protrusions that pull the cell forward.
In essence, the cytoskeleton’s dynamic nature allows animal cells to reorganize their shape and internal components rapidly, facilitating cell elongation in response to developmental cues, environmental stimuli, or healing processes. Its role is both foundational and responsive, providing the structure needed to elongate and the ability to change that structure as necessary.
5. Molecular Regulation
Molecular regulation of cell elongation in both plants and animals involves a complex network of signals that control the cellular machinery responsible for growth. This regulation is multi-layered, involving immediate cellular responses and longer-term genetic changes.
1. Molecular Regulation of Cell Elongation in Plants
1. Auxin Distribution
- Auxins are plant hormones that regulate cell elongation by modulating cell wall plasticity. They are unevenly distributed in plant tissues which leads to differential growth rates and patterns, such as those seen in phototropism and gravitropism.
2. Expansins and Cell Wall Loosening
- Expansins are proteins that induce cell wall loosening by breaking non-covalent bonds between cellulose microfibrils and cross-linking glycans, allowing the cell wall to stretch.
3. Proton Pumps and Acid Growth Theory
- Proton pumps (H+-ATPases) on the plasma membrane lower the pH of the cell wall, activating enzymes that catalyze cell wall loosening and promoting cell expansion.
4. Turgor Pressure Management
- Osmoregulation involves the controlled movement of ions and other solutes into and out of the cell which affects osmotic pressure and hence water uptake, crucial for cell elongation.
5. Gibberellins and Brassinosteroids
- Other plant hormones like gibberellins and brassinosteroids also play roles in cell elongation by affecting gene expression and cell wall enzyme activity.
2. Molecular Regulation of Cell Elongation in Animals
1. Growth Factors and Receptors
- Animal cells often rely on growth factors that bind to specific receptors on the cell surface, triggering intracellular signaling cascades that result in cell growth and elongation.
2. Cytoskeletal Dynamics
- The state of the cytoskeleton is regulated by a variety of proteins that can polymerize or depolymerize actin filaments and microtubules, as well as crosslinking and branching agents, which contribute to changes in cell shape and size.
3. Motor Proteins and Transport
- Motor proteins like kinesins, dyneins, and myosins are essential for the movement of organelles and vesicles during cell elongation, and they are regulated by phosphorylation and other post-translational modifications.
4. Cell Adhesion Molecules
- Cadherins, integrins, and other cell adhesion molecules mediate the interaction between the cell and its environment which can influence cell shape and motility.
- Cells can sense and respond to mechanical signals through a process called mechanotransduction which involves changes in the cytoskeleton and can affect cell elongation.
6. Signaling Pathways
- Various signaling pathways, including those involving Rho GTPases, MAPK/ERK, and PI3K/Akt, are crucial for regulating cytoskeletal dynamics and cell survival, proliferation, and growth.
7. Transcription Factors and Gene Expression
- Transcription factors regulate the expression of genes that are necessary for cell growth and elongation, and their activity can be influenced by external signals as well as cell-internal states.
8. Epigenetic Regulation
- Modifications to DNA and histone proteins can affect the accessibility of genes involved in cell elongation, thereby, influencing the cell’s ability to respond to growth signals.
This molecular regulation ensures that cell elongation is a highly controlled and precise process, integrated with the overall growth and developmental plan of the organism. It also allows cells to adapt to environmental conditions and respond to damage or stress by modifying their growth patterns. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms is crucial for biotechnological applications, including agriculture, where control of plant growth is vital, and in medicine, where manipulating cell elongation could aid in tissue regeneration and repair.
6. Cellular Signaling and Regulation
Cellular signaling and regulation are fundamental processes that control cell behavior and function including cell elongation. Cells receive and process signals from their external environment and translate these into internal actions through a series of complex signaling cascades. Here’s how cellular signaling and regulation are intertwined with cell elongation:
1. Receptors and Signal Transduction
1. Receptor Activation
- Cells have receptors on their surface or within their cytoplasm and nucleus that can bind to signaling molecules such as hormones, growth factors, cytokines, and neurotransmitters.
2. Signal Transduction Pathways
- Upon binding a signal, receptors undergo conformational changes that initiate intracellular signaling cascades. These cascades often involve the activation of protein kinases, which phosphorylate target proteins, leading to a chain reaction of signaling events.
3. Secondary Messengers
- Many signaling pathways involve the production of secondary messengers like cyclic AMP (cAMP), calcium ions (Ca2+), and inositol trisphosphate (IP3), which further propagate the signal within the cell.
2. Intracellular Signaling
1. Phosphorylation Cascades
- Kinases and phosphatases add and remove phosphate groups, respectively, from proteins, thereby modifying their activity. This phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is a common regulatory mechanism in signaling pathways, including those regulating cell elongation.
- Small GTP-binding proteins such as Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 are critical in reorganizing the cytoskeleton, particularly actin, which is essential for cell movement and elongation.
3. Nuclear Signaling
- Some signals are transmitted directly to the nucleus where they affect transcription factors, altering gene expression patterns to produce proteins necessary for cell elongation and growth.
3. Hormonal Regulation
1. Plant Hormones
- In plants, hormones like auxin, gibberellins, and cytokinins play key roles in promoting cell elongation. Auxin, for example, activates proton pumps that acidify the cell wall and promote its expansion.
2. Animal Hormones
- In animals, hormones like epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) bind to cell surface receptors, triggering signaling pathways that result in cell elongation and division.
4. Feedback Mechanisms
1. Negative Feedback
- To prevent overactivation, signaling pathways often have built-in negative feedback mechanisms where downstream elements inhibit upstream components.
2. Positive Feedback
- Conversely, positive feedback loops can amplify the signal, leading to a robust and sustained response necessary for processes like cell elongation that require a significant cellular reorganization.
5. Integration with Cellular Processes
1. Cytoskeleton Interaction
- Signaling pathways interact with the cytoskeleton to induce changes in cell shape and promote elongation. This is seen in the activation of motor proteins that drive cytoskeletal remodeling.
2. Cell Cycle Control
- Signaling pathways can also control the cell cycle which must be tightly coordinated with cell growth and elongation to ensure proper cell function.
3. Cell Adhesion and ECM Interaction
- Cells must adhere to and communicate with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and neighboring cells. Integrins and other adhesion molecules can transmit signals from the ECM to the cell, influencing cell elongation and migration.
4. Environmental Cues
- Cells can adjust their elongation and growth in response to environmental cues such as nutrients, light (in the case of plants), mechanical stress, and chemical gradients.
Cellular signaling and regulation are therefore central to ensuring that cell elongation is carefully orchestrated as part of the organism’s growth, development, and response to its environment. Dysregulation of these pathways can lead to diseases such as cancer, which is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and division. Understanding these processes is thus critical for developing therapeutic strategies for a range of diseases.
7. Environmental and Mechanical Factors
Environmental and mechanical factors play a significant role in the regulation of cell elongation, influencing how cells grow and develop within their specific contexts. Here’s how these factors interact with the biological processes of cell elongation:
1. Environmental Factors
- In plants, light affects cell elongation through phototropism, where cells on the plant’s shaded side elongate more, causing the plant to bend towards the light. In animals, light can indirectly affect cell behavior, such as influencing circadian rhythms that then regulate cell cycle and growth.
- Gravitropism in plants leads to differential cell elongation, enabling roots to grow downwards and shoots upwards. In animal cells, gravity can influence cell growth and tissue organization, which is particularly evident in the health effects observed in astronauts.
- Both plant and animal cells can respond to temperature changes by altering their growth rates. For instance, higher temperatures may increase enzymatic activity and metabolism, promoting cell elongation up to a point.
- The availability of nutrients directly affects cell growth and elongation. In plants, nutrient gradients in soil can influence root elongation. In animal cells, nutrient-sensing pathways regulate cell metabolism and growth.
5. Water Availability
- Turgor pressure, critical for plant cell elongation, is directly influenced by water availability. In animals, cell volume regulation involves intricate mechanisms that ensure cells do not shrink or swell excessively, affecting cell elongation.
6. Oxygen Concentration
- Hypoxia, or low oxygen levels, can trigger adaptive responses in cells that lead to altered growth patterns. In plants, this might mean elongation of cells to facilitate oxygen uptake, while in animal cells, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) can change gene expression patterns affecting cell growth and survival.
2. Mechanical Factors
1. Tensile Stress
- Cells under tension, like muscle cells or cells in the vascular system, can respond by elongating and strengthening to withstand mechanical stress.
- Cells subjected to compression can modify their growth patterns. Chondrocytes in cartilage, for example, regulate their proliferation and matrix synthesis in response to compressive forces.
3. Shear Stress
- Endothelial cells lining blood vessels are exposed to shear stress due to blood flow which influences their elongation and alignment in the direction of flow.
4. Substrate Stiffness
- The rigidity of the surface on which cells grow, known as the substrate, can direct cell elongation. Cells often elongate more on stiffer substrates due to the resistance provided, which influences the traction forces they can generate.
5. Cell-Cell Interactions
- The physical forces exerted by neighboring cells can affect cell elongation, as cells often grow and expand in a collective manner, especially in tissues.
6. Matrix Remodeling
- Cells interact with and remodel the extracellular matrix, which can influence their ability to elongate. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), for example, can degrade matrix components, allowing for cell movement and growth.
In summary, environmental and mechanical factors contribute to a dynamic and responsive cellular environment. Cells have evolved mechanisms to sense these external cues and integrate them with internal signaling pathways to regulate their elongation appropriately. Understanding these interactions is crucial for fields ranging from agriculture, where environmental conditions directly influence plant growth, to medicine and tissue engineering, where mechanical and environmental cues are used to guide cell and tissue development.
8. Cellular Architecture
9. Genetic and Developmental Programs
Genetic and developmental programs are the blueprints that guide the growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of cells and organisms. These programs are encoded in the DNA and executed through the regulation of gene expression and signal transduction pathways. Here’s how these programs relate to cell elongation:
1. Genetic Control of Cell Elongation
1. Gene Expression
- Specific genes that influence cell elongation are turned on and off at particular times and locations within an organism. These genes can encode for proteins such as enzymes, structural proteins, growth factors, and hormones that are directly involved in the elongation process.
2. Transcription Factors
- These are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and control the transfer (or transcription) of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA. Transcription factors can act as switches to activate or repress the genes responsible for cell elongation.
3. Epigenetic Regulation
- Modifications to the DNA or histones that do not change the genetic code can influence gene expression. These epigenetic marks can determine whether genes related to cell elongation are accessible for transcription.
4. RNA Processing
- Post-transcriptional modifications to RNA, such as splicing, editing, and polyadenylation, can influence the types and amounts of proteins produced in a cell, thereby affecting cell elongation.
2. Developmental Programs and Cell Elongation
1. Morphogen Gradients
- These are gradients of substances (morphogens) that form in developing tissues and provide positional information to cells. Depending on their position in the gradient, cells can respond differently such as elongating more or less in response to the concentration of morphogens.
2. Pattern Formation
- During development, cells must know where to elongate to form the correct structures. This is controlled by the genetic developmental program that ensures cells have the correct identity and positional information.
3. Developmental Pathways
- Signaling pathways like Hedgehog, Wnt, and Notch are integral to development. They can influence cell elongation by affecting cell fate decisions, proliferation, and differentiation.
4. Cellular Differentiation
- As cells differentiate into specific cell types, they may undergo elongation as part of acquiring their final form and function such as in the case of muscle cells or neurons.
5. Tissue Mechanics
- The mechanical properties of tissues can influence the behavior of cells including their elongation. Cells can sense the stiffness and topology of their environment and these cues can direct their growth accordingly.
6. Temporal Regulation
- Timing is crucial in development; genes must be expressed at the right moment for proper development. This timing is often controlled by genetic and environmental signals.
7. Hormonal Control
- Hormones such as auxins in plants and growth hormones in animals can regulate cell elongation systemically. These hormones can affect cell elongation directly or indirectly by influencing gene expression.
8. Cell Cycle Regulation
- The cell cycle must be tightly coordinated with cell growth and elongation. Checkpoints ensure that cells only proceed with division when they have reached a certain size and are ready to divide.
Understanding the genetic and developmental programs that govern cell elongation is essential for a wide range of scientific and medical fields. It allows researchers to manipulate these processes for various applications, such as improving crop yields or developing treatments for developmental disorders. These programs represent the interconnectedness of the genetic instructions and the cellular machinery that carries out the physical process of elongation during growth and development.
10. Application in Technology and Medicine
The understanding of cell elongation has significant applications in technology and medicine, providing insights that are vital for innovation and therapeutic development. Here are some of the key areas where knowledge of cell elongation is applied:
1. Biotechnology and Agriculture
1. Crop Engineering
- Knowledge of cell elongation can help in engineering crops that grow larger or are more resistant to environmental stressors. For example, modifying the hormonal pathways or cell wall enzymes responsible for cell elongation can lead to improved crop yields.
2. Plant Tissue Culture
- In-vitro cultivation of plant tissues for cloning and genetic engineering relies on manipulating cell elongation to produce plantlets from small tissue samples.
- Understanding how cell elongation contributes to biomass can be utilized in optimizing the growth of biofuel crops, making them a more viable and sustainable energy source.
2. Medical Therapies
1. Regenerative Medicine
- Insights into cell elongation can aid in tissue engineering, where cells are encouraged to grow and form new tissues for transplants and repairs, such as skin grafts, muscle repair, or nerve regeneration.
2. Cancer Research
- Since cancer involves cells that grow and divide uncontrollably, understanding the mechanisms controlling cell elongation can help in developing targeted therapies to halt tumor growth.
3. Wound Healing
- Cell elongation is a key part of the wound-healing process as cells need to grow and close the wound. Research in this area can lead to new treatments that speed up the healing process or improve the quality of scar tissue.
4. Drug Development
- Many drugs work by targeting the signaling pathways involved in cell elongation. For instance, anticancer drugs may target the pathways that regulate cell division and elongation.
3. Materials Science
- The development of materials that can influence cell elongation is crucial for creating scaffolds that guide tissue regeneration in three-dimensional structures.
- At the nano-scale, materials can be engineered to mimic the extracellular matrix, providing cues for cell elongation and directing tissue formation.
4. Genetic Engineering
1. Gene Editing
- Techniques like CRISPR/Cas9 allow for precise modifications to genes that control cell elongation, with potential applications in treating genetic disorders where cell growth is affected.
2. Synthetic Biology
- Synthetic biology often involves redesigning organisms for specific purposes such as creating bacteria that can elongate and form filaments for special functions.
5. Pharmaceutical Industry
1. Hormone Therapies
- Hormones that regulate cell elongation, such as growth hormone or auxins, have applications in both human medicine and plant agriculture.
2. Antibody Therapies
- Monoclonal antibodies can be designed to target specific proteins involved in cell elongation pathways, offering a way to control diseases related to cell growth.
The application of knowledge about cell elongation is vast and continues to expand as research provides deeper insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved. This not only advances our understanding of fundamental biological processes but also translates into tangible benefits for society, especially in health and food security.
Cell division is a fundamental process in biology where a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.
This is the process by which a single cell divides to produce two new cells that are genetically identical to the original cell. Mitosis is involved in growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. It’s also the method by which unicellular organisms reproduce.
Here’s a detailed look at its phases:
- Although not officially part of mitosis, this is where the cell spends most of its life. During interphase, the cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division. DNA replication occurs during the S phase of interphase, resulting in two identical copies of each chromosome, held together at a region called the centromere.
- Chromatin fibers condense into chromosomes that are visible under a microscope. The nucleolus disappears and the mitotic spindle begins to form from the centrosomes which move to opposite ends of the cell.
- The nuclear envelope breaks down allowing the spindle fibers to interact with the chromosomes.
- Chromosomes align at the cell’s equatorial plate in what is known as the metaphase plate. Spindle fibers from both centrosomes attach to each sister chromatid at the centromere.
- The centromeres split, and the spindle fibers shorten, pulling the sister chromatids apart to opposite poles of the cell. This ensures that each new cell will receive an identical set of chromosomes.
- Nuclear envelopes re-form around the separated sister chromatids now considered individual chromosomes. The chromosomes begin to decondense back into chromatin and the nucleolus reappears within the nucleus.
- This is the final stage where the cell’s cytoplasm divides, forming two daughter cells. In animal cells, this occurs through a cleavage furrow that pinches the cell in two. In plant cells, a cell plate forms along the metaphase plate, eventually leading to the separation of the two cells.