The root is an important component in the plant structure. The non-leafy section of a plant’s structure which does not exhibit any nodes is called the root. Roots may also be aerial, meaning they develop above the ground’s surface, or aerated, meaning they float on the water’s surface. The roots are in charge of delivering enough water and nutrients for the stems and leaves to thrive. In this article, we are going to discover everything about the fibrous root system along with its functions. But first, let’s get to know a little about it. Fibrous roots are those that grow from a stem’s base or through the interconnections of a horizontal stem. These fibrous roots are generally present in the monocotyledonous plant. Fibrous roots originate as the main root as seen in the taproot system. These initial roots are short-lived, and since the plant grows, they are supplanted by a vast number of fiber-like roots that emerge from the stem’s base. To make your understanding better, the well-known example of these fibrous roots would be the palm tree- which spreads all over the ground.
Types of Fibrous Root System
As seen in the earlier post about the taproot system, the fibrous root system also possesses different types based on their functions. For the storage of food, these fibrous roots are known as Fleshy Fibrous Roots. Another type of fibrous root is Stilt Roots, which help the plant in the transportation of water and minerals. The third type of fibrous roots is reproductive roots that help in the production of a bud into a whole new plant. Let us get to know each of these types in more detail.
Fleshy Fibrous Roots
As discovered in the taproot system, the fibrous roots also consume food particles from within the soil and become swollen. The components of the fibrous root system have been changed so that they may collect and preserve the food prepared by the plant. After the preparation of the food by the plant, the cells or components tend to swell. As a result, the entire root eventually appears enlarged. The plant uses the food that has been stored as a supply of nourishment during times of adversity or unfavorable climatic conditions. According to the structure, these fleshy fibrous roots are divided into three main types:
- Tuberous Roots
- Fasciculated Roots
- Annulated Roots
Tuberous roots are a kind of root that is exceptionally thick. They retain a large quantity of food in order to sustain the entire plant. They are a fleshy storage structure that has been expanded and modified. The modification of these roots emerges from their stems. Tuberous roots are propagated through crown division, with each crown division having numerous buds and enough storage to produce a new plant. These roots are found individually and appear to be of the same structure as of the taproot. These swelling roots don’t take on a certain shape. Storage roots, also known as tuberous roots, are larger lateral roots. These roots’ cells have been altered such that they may preserve food within them. One such example of a tuberous root system is sweet potato or ipomoea batatas.
These types of roots appear like clusters. Fasciculated roots can be the same as tuberous roots. This is because these roots have also been altered in such a way that they can store and preserve the food inside them. The only distinguishing feature between the fasciculated roots and tuberous roots is that the fasciculated roots appear in clusters. While the tuberous roots appear individually or singly. Some common examples of fasciculated roots are dahlia and asparagus.
The annulated roots look like it’s made up of a series of inflated discs stacked one on top of the other. A succession of ring-like manifestations or swellings gives this root an annular look. Ipecac and cephalic ipecacuanha are two good examples of annulated roots.
2. Stilt Roots
These roots emerge from the stem’s basal node and are small yet dense. They enter the ground by growing downwards in an oblique orientation. These roots develop into fibrous roots once embedded in the soil, which keep the soil securely in place to maintain the long, thin unbranched stem, similar to the ropes that keep a pole or tent in place. Mineral salt and water are better absorbed by these roots. It grows out from the stem’s lower nodes in monocots. It develops an oblique downward growth pattern in the soil. The stilt roots grow fibrous roots after piercing the ground. They offer support for the plant’s primary axis. Stilt roots are commonly seen in maize, sugarcane, screwpine, and other plants.
3. Reproductive Roots
Although roots are not productive, they are vegetative portions of plants. The roots of certain plants serve as a mechanism of reproduction. The fleshy roots of the fibrous roots develop buds. Under some ideal conditions, these buds develop into new plant green growth. As a result, reproductive roots are those that include buds that contribute to the creation of a new plant. When new plants emerge from crawling horizontal stems known as runners or stolons in jasmine, grass, sweet potato, and other plants, this is the most common example of reproductive roots. Vegetative propagation is another name for this sort of reproduction.
What Are Some Major Functions of Fibrous Root System?
The last section of our article will cover all the major functions of the fibrous root system. As we all know, roots perform many biological functions in order to facilitate the plant with all the necessary nutrients and minerals from the soil. So, let’s see what kind of other functions it performs for the growth of a plant.
- Water and mineral uptake out from the soil is done by the fibrous root system.
- This root system provides sufficient support to the plant and keeps the soil from eroding.
- Plant growth regulators are also produced with the help of a fibrous root.
- It also helps in the storage of reserved food and minerals prepared by the plant.
Thus, fibrous roots are of great help to the plant’s growth and development. From transporting essential nutrients and minerals to facilitating the plant with great support, it aids the plant in many ways.