We all see many types of grass around our gardens, lawns, and backyards. But have you ever thought about its root system? The root system of the grass consists of two types: primary and adventitious roots. You might not have heard about the specifications and the scientific classification of the grass before. The grass is a monocotyledonous plant with spiny leaves growing from its root. It belongs to the family the Poaceae, Rushes, and Sedges families. All the above three families come under a group of Poales. Prior to coming to the root system of the grass, we will talk about the specifications and scientific classification of the grass plant system.
Scientific Classification of the Grass
Grass comes from the kingdom named Plantae. The subkingdom of this plant is known as Tracheobionta. It is further classified into the subdivision of Spermatophyta and the division of it is Magnoliophyta. The class to which it belongs is referred to as Liliopsida and its subclass is Commelinidae. Lastly, the order and the family of the grass plant are Cyperales and Poaceae.
Specifications of the Grass
- Being a nonwoody plant, the grass is a monocot with spike-like leaves emerging from its roots.
- The grass plant comes under the Poaceae family. Hence, approx 10,000 species of this family are mostly consisting of grass.
- However, these grasses may have different genera, and they can also be called grasses. Some well-known examples of it are papyrus, reeds, and water chestnuts.
- There are different classifications of grasses such as Cereals, Grassland, Turfs, and Bamboo.
- Grass can be found almost everywhere on the earth.
- One surprising fact about grasses is that they can survive in any weather condition and any soil.
- They can be seen growing in cold mountains, deserts, rain forests, and also in seacoast habitats.
- Talking about the leaves and flowers of the grass plant, the leaves are really thin and have parallel long veins. Likewise, the flowers of the grass plant are known as florets. Generally, these florets are tiny in size and can be dioecious or monoecious.
- The grass may extend or decrease its length depending upon its species. They can be as small as 0.79-1.80 inches to as long as 98.4 feet.
- The fruits of the grass plant are starchy.
Grass Root System
Roots serve as anchors for plants in the ground, as storing organs, and as absorbers and conductors of water and vital nutrients. These processes differ based on the amount of water and minerals in the plants. When anything emerges from the soil surface, grass plants’ roots are sent deep into the earth. This lays the groundwork for future growth. Before sprout forms, for example, 2-3 inches of root development. Within two weeks, the root might reach a depth of 6 inches. Primary Roots and Adventitious Roots are two kinds of grass root systems that can be classified depending on their growth periods and location. Throughout the germination of seeds, the embryo develops into the major roots. The adventitious roots, on the other hand, originate from the crown and lateral stem terminals. Let us investigate the differences between the two.
Primary Root System
During seed germination, the roots in the primary root system emerge from the embryo. There are some roots that thrive too long before shedding off, for example, annual grassroots. They are also capable of absorbing essential water and minerals from the soil. Whereas, in the perennial grassroots, these primary roots can live only for a couple of weeks before shedding off. After shedding or dying, the roots in the grass get replaced by the adventitious root system. The best example of this is Kentucky Bluegrass can live only for a year or two. While, Bentgrass, Byegrass, Bermudagrass, etc. produces newly fresh roots each year.
Adventitious Root System
In this type of root system, the roots start growing from the internal nodes of the stem and crown. This root system takes place as a replacement for the primary root system. The adventitious roots stay for the rest of the life cycle of grasses. However, longevity also depends upon seed production and defoliation management.
The enlargement of newly formed cells originating from the splitting of the meristematic layer of the cells located right beneath the root cap could be the cause of root development. Elongated cells mature and differentiate, resulting in the formation of specialized tissues that carry water and nutrients to various plant components. The root hair soaks up the water and directs it to the endodermal cells via a diffusion gradient, which then transports the excess moisture to the connecting cells of the vascular tissue, or xylem. As previously stated, Grass species can be classified as perennial or annual rooting, depending on how frequently the primary root system of a Grass species is substituted by the adventitious root system.
What are the Functions of the Grass-Root System?
The grassroots play a significant role in preserving the greenery around us. These roots perform the following major functions as stated below:
- The roots of the grass provide support to the plant in order to not get blown away.
- The main function of the grass root system is absorption. The grass plant provides the plant with enough water and minerals from the soil to the rest of the plant.
- The roots of the grass plant produce two hormones: Cytokinin and Gibberellin.
- These two hormones are well-suited for the growth and development of plants.
- The grass root controls the whole movement of the plant.
Uses of the Grass Plant
We all know grass can be beneficial in the ecosystem as it is the main part of the food chain. The herbivores are dependent on the grass for their meal. Without the grass, we cannot imagine life on this earth. The food chain of the ecosystem is incomplete without grass. Hence, let us discuss some more uses of it in modern-day lives.
- Many crops are grown with the use of grass such as oats, barley, wheat, rice, and millet.
- Grass covers are also used in soil erosion for covering the plant.
- The grasses can also be helpful in forming sports turfs.
- There can be many species of grasses that can be used as garden ornaments.
- While making alcohol and brew, some grass plants are also utilized.
- Sugar obtained with the help of sugarcane is also constituted from the family of the grass plants.
- As discussed above, the first food in the food chain is grass. These grasses are consumed by many animals and hence, it is considered a primary source of energy for the animals.
- Bamboo, which comes from grass, can be used to make furniture, homes, fence, etc.
- The grass plant can also be utilized as a roof, for food, and for weaving basket
Some Well-Known Facts About Grass Plant
Do you know?
Grasses have been discovered on the mother nature even before the era of dinosaurs. We eat daily crops like rice, sugarcane, millet etc in our routine lives. All these crops are derived from the family of grass. It has been believed that cutting of grasses leads to cause some brown spots on the land. Hence, when these grasses grows as much as upto nine inches, it cuts itself from its bottom.